If you followed a previous article where we highlighted the plight of Brian Fletcher, there’s a big question looming as to whether or not you have a duty to inform law enforcement (or anyone) as to whether or not you are carrying without first being asked.
We take a state-by-state look at each state’s gun laws to find out who you have a duty to inform and when. This only applies to a person with the state’s designated version of a license or permit to carry a concealed firearm (or weapon, as the term applies) or granted reciprocity therein to do so.
- We are not covering open carry.
- We are not covering what happens if you are in violation of a crime.
- We are covering if you are legally obliged to inform law enforcement as to your legal concealment of a firearm without first being asked.
- If you are in a state where firearms registration is required as a condition to receive a permit, or are required to have a permit to acquire, or any of the other convoluted mechanisms prior to being a legal, concealed carrier in that state – this list assumes you have lawfully completed those conditions. So if you have not completed those processes, this list isn’t for you.
- This article is written (and researched) from the perspective that if you are:
- Legally allowed to conceal a firearm AND
- …You are stopped by law enforcement THEN
- Are you required to inform them you have a concealed firearm on your person?
- Duty To Inform is taken to mean, in the context of this article, a specific lawful duty to inform a member of law enforcement without being asked first.
- This does not include the provision “if asked”.
- If you are asked, you are legally required to produce your valid concealed carry permit.
This is a longer article – so for ease, we’ve included a hyperlinked list of all 50 states and the District of Columbia so you can zoom to your state of interest.
Disclaimer: WE ARE NOT ATTORNEYS. We don’t pretend to be attorneys. We’re just citing laws as they’re written. This guide is current as of July 26, 2015 and links cited all direct to the specific portions of each state’s law as it pertains to their firearms laws. This guide is meant as light reference AND SHOULD NEVER BE CONSTRUED AS BONA FIDE LEGAL ADVICE. You, personally, should review each state’s laws thoroughly to ensure you have the right understanding for the various classifications. Many laws change annually or sooner depending upon legislative sessions and the results of judicial courts.
Are You Required To Inform Law Enforcement Of A Concealed Firearm?
Alabama – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
Alaska – Yes (Always)
Arizona – If Asked (If Asked – Yes)
Arkansas – Yes – When Asked For Identification
California – Yes For Some Counties – If Asked Otherwise (No known duty)
Colorado – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
Connecticut – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
Delaware – If Asked (See *NOTES)
District of Columbia – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement; in flux!)
Florida – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
Georgia – No (Police Cannot Detain You To Verify)
Hawaii – Unknown At This Time (Essentially No-Permit State)
Idaho – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
Illinois – If Asked (See Notes* — Thank you, Illinois concealed carriers!)
Indiana – If Asked
Iowa – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
Kansas – If Asked (Non-Resident, Residents have constitutional carry)
Kentucky – If Asked (LEOs Really Appreciate It If You DO)
Louisiana – Yes (See Notes)
Maine – No (Permitless Carriers – Yes; See Notes…)
Maryland – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
Massachusetts – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
Michigan – Yes (Always)
Minnesota – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
Mississippi – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
Missouri – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
Montana – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
Nebraska – Yes
Nevada – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
New Hampshire – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
New Jersey – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
New Mexico – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
New York – If Asked (see *Notes)
North Carolina – Yes (see *Notes)
North Dakota – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
Ohio – Yes (Always)
Oklahoma – Yes (Must also inform private property owner)
Oregon – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
Pennsylvania – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
Rhode Island – Please Do! If Asked…
South Carolina – Yes
South Dakota – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
Tennessee – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
Texas – Yes – When Asked For Identification
Utah – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
Vermont – Constitutional Carry
Virginia – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
Washington – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
West Virginia – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
Wisconsin – If Asked
Wyoming – If Asked (No known duty to inform law enforcement)
Alabama – No Duty To Inform
Do you need to inform Alabama law enforcement as to whether or not you have a concealed firearm on your person or in your vehicle?
Not explicitly defined in § 13A-11-50, however should you carry a concealed firearm into any of the places Alabama law has stipulated you may not carry, your license is subject to revocation and you are subject to possible criminal charges.
According to Alabama gun statutes, an employer has the right to inquire whether or not an employee has a firearm in the event that the employer believes that employee presents a risk.
§ 13A-11-90. Restrictions on firearms by employers.
c. If an employer believes that an employee presents a risk of harm to himself/herself or to others, the employer may inquire as to whether the employee possesses a firearm in his or her private motor vehicle. If the employee does possess a firearm in his or her private motor vehicle on the property of the employer, the employer may make any inquiry necessary to establish that the employee is in compliance with subsection (b)
Subsection (b) states:
b. In a motor vehicle unattended by the employee, kept from ordinary observation and locked within a compartment, container, or in the interior of the person’s privately owned motor vehicle or in a compartment or container securely affixed to the motor vehicle.
Furthermore, while we didn’t find any explicit mention of the need to inform a member of law enforcement as to your possession of a concealed carry firearm, there are specific conditions whereby – if violated – the police can charge you for a misdemeanor. So it is in your interest, if you are unsure, to inform a police officer that you do have a concealed carry firearm on your person if a demonstration is going on and you are not on your privately owned property.
§ 13A-11-59. Possession of firearms by persons participating in, attending, etc., demonstrations at public places.
(b) It shall be unlawful for any person, other than a law enforcement officer, to have in his or her possession or on his or her person or in any vehicle any firearm while participating in or attending any demonstration being held at a public place.
(c) It shall be unlawful for any person, other than a law enforcement officer as defined in subsection (a) of this section, to have in his or her possession or about his or her person or in any vehicle at a point within 1,000 feet of a demonstration at a public place, any firearm after having first been advised by a law enforcement officer that a demonstration was taking place at a public place and after having been ordered by such officer to remove himself or herself from the prescribed area until such time as he or she no longer was in possession of any firearm. This subsection shall not apply to any person in possession of or having on his or her person any firearm within a private dwelling or other private building or structure.
TL;DR – Law enforcement may ask whether you have a concealed carry firearm or weapon (bowie knives included) on your person. You can choose to not respond and which case, they can conduct either a warrantless search or get a warrant to search you. In which case, if they find a firearm or weapon – as classified in the aforementioned section of law – and you are in a place that prohibits the carriage of such weapons – they can charge you with whatever crimes are in that code.
If an employer believes you are a threat to yourself or others, he is allowed to inquire whether or not you have a weapon. If you do and you are not covered under those conditions, he has the choice to take adverse action against you as stipulated by § 13A-11-90.
In both cases, you are not outright or explicitly required to inform either parties – but both parties are allowed to make inquiry given proper conditions.
Alaska – Duty To Inform Law Enforcement Immediately!
In Alaska, it is a crime to knowingly possess a concealed weapon (or firearm) on your person without expressly informing law enforcement when they approach you. You are also obliged to allow them to temporarily secure your weapon for the duration of their interaction with you.
Sec. 11.61.220. Misconduct involving weapons in the fifth degree.
(a) A person commits the crime of misconduct involving weapons in the fifth degree if the person
(1) is 21 years of age or older and knowingly possesses a deadly weapon, other than an ordinary pocket knife or a defensive weapon,
(A) that is concealed on the person, and, when contacted by a peace officer, the person fails to
(i) immediately inform the peace officer of that possession; or
(ii) allow the peace officer to secure the deadly weapon, or fails to secure the weapon at the direction of the peace officer, during the duration of the contact;
Arizona – Duty To Inform If Asked!
13-3112. Concealed weapons; qualification; application; permit to carry; civil penalty; report; applicability
C. A permittee who carries a concealed weapon, who is required by section 4-229 or 4-244 to carry a permit and who fails to present the permit for inspection on the request of a law enforcement officer commits a violation of this subsection and is subject to a civil penalty of not more than three hundred dollars. The department of public safety shall be notified of all violations of this subsection and shall immediately suspend the permit. A permittee shall not be convicted of a violation of this subsection if the permittee produces to the court a legible permit that is issued to the permittee and that was valid at the time the permittee failed to present the permit for inspection.
D. A law enforcement officer shall not confiscate or forfeit a weapon that is otherwise lawfully possessed by a permittee whose permit is suspended pursuant to subsection C of this section, except that a law enforcement officer may take temporary custody of a firearm during an investigatory stop of the permittee.
Arkansas – Duty To Inform Police When Asked For ID, Also Occupant Of Private Home
5-73-306. Prohibited places.
(19) (A) Any place at the discretion of the person or entity exercising control over the physical location of the place by placing at each entrance to the place a written notice clearly readable at a distance of not less than ten feet (10′) that “carrying a handgun is prohibited”.
(D) Any licensee entering a private home shall notify the occupant that the licensee is carrying a concealed handgun.
And as for Duty To Notify, that’s covered in this part of the law right here:
5-73-315. Possession of license — Identification of licensee.
(a) Any licensee possessing a valid license issued pursuant to this subchapter may carry a concealed handgun.
(b) The licensee shall:
(1) Carry the license, or an electronic copy of the license in an acceptable electronic format, together with valid identification, at any time when the licensee is carrying a concealed handgun; and
(2) Display both the license, or an electronic copy of the license in an acceptable electronic format, and proper identification upon demand by a law enforcement officer.
And at first glance, yes, it would appear you are not obliged to inform without first being asked. However, as a contributor pointed out, in Chapter 3 of the Department of Arkansas State Police’s Concealed Carry License Rules:
Rule 3.2 Contact with law enforcement
(a) While in possession of a concealed hand gun, the licensee shall present the original license for inspection, along with an official form of photo identification, upon request for identification by any law enforcement officer.
(b) In any official contact with law enforcement, if the licensee IS in possession of a handgun, when the officer asks the licensee for identification (driver’s license, or personal information , such as name and date of birth), the licensee shall notify the officer that he or she holds a concealed handgun carry license and that he or she has a handgun in his or her possession.
(c) In any official contact with law enforcement, if the licensee IS NOT in possession of a handgun, when the officer asks the licensee for identification (driver’s license, or personal information, such as name and date of birth), the licensee shall not be required to notify the officer that he or she holds a concealed handgun carry license and does not have a handgun in his or her possession.
In conclusion – if you have a concealed carry handgun and a license to do so, it is your duty to inform Arkansas law enforcement upon contact.
California – No Known Duty To Inform
We checked throughout Penal Code Sections 26150-26225. Nothing was mentioned about a requirement to inform law enforcement of your concealed carry firearm so long as your license is valid in the county or city that you have registered it in.
Some counties have local ordinances requiring you to inform law enforcement at the first available opportunity. The scope of this article is not local municipal and county ordinances.
If you have a concealed carry firearm on you and you are not a resident of California, THEN you are violating California law. A concealed carry permit issued by the State of California is valid throughout the state except where county and local ordinances specifically restrict such carriage.
Colorado – No Known Duty To Inform
A concealed carry pistol or revolver is not considered concealed while you are inside a vehicle. The Colorado State Patrol outlines a good brief of the various classifications and distinctions here.
Colorado has their CHP statutes listed here – all linking to LexisNexis databases of the current law for your purview. We haven’t found anything specifically requiring concealed carriers (CHP, resident & reciprocity) to inform law enforcement or others as long as he or she is not in violation of any codes or statutes.
Connecticut – No Known Duty To Inform
There is no duty to inform law enforcement or others of your concealed carry pistol so long as you are permitted to carry a concealed firearm in that particular place. Connecticut has municipal laws that further restrict locations whereby a concealed carrier may take his firearm. Research accordingly.
Delaware – No Known Duty To Inform
We searched all around TITLE 11, CHAPTER 5, Subchapter VII, § 1441 License to carry concealed deadly weapons and did not find anything related to the concealed carrier having a duty to inform anyone of his lawful carriage of a concealed deadly weapon.
According to 1903. Searching Questioned Person For Weapon
A peace officer may search for a dangerous weapon any person whom the officer has stopped or detained to question as provided in § 1902 of this title, whenever the officer has reasonable ground to believe that the officer is in danger if the person possesses a dangerous weapon. If the officer finds a weapon, the officer may take and keep it until the completion of the questioning, when the officer shall either return it or arrest the person. The arrest may be for the illegal possession of a weapon.
So far, we have not found any explicit mention of a duty to inform outside of an incomplete judicial decision in Griffin V. State of Delaware. And in Griffin V. State of Delaware, the issue of him informing police he had a knife in his trousers was not explicitly one of concealed carry weapon permitting – it was about whether or not Griffin informed police after he was asked.
District of Columbia – No Known Duty To Inform
The District of Columbia’s concealed carry laws are presently the subject of a pending Federal Appeals Court. It’s only recently that any resident could even be authorized to have a concealed carry permit. Laws are in flux but at present, so long as you are not violating any law, you have no known duty to inform law enforcement.
Florida – No Known Duty To Inform
We checked Florida Statutes – 790.06 License to carry concealed weapon or firearm. There were no specific provisions mentioned whereby a concealed carrier is required to inform law enforcement or anyone else of his or her carriage of a concealed firearm so long as he or she is not in violation of any state law.
Georgia – No Duty To Inform
Examining the laws regarding the weapons carry license for concealed carry firearms in the State of Georgia reveals that there is no duty to inform law enforcement but there is an absolute duty to always maintain your concealed carry permit on you while you are armed.
O.C.G.A. § 16-11-137
Required possession of weapons carry license or proof of exemption when carrying a weapon; detention for investigation of carrying permit
(a) Every license holder shall have his or her valid weapons carry license in his or her immediate possession at all times when carrying a weapon, or if such person is exempt from having a weapons carry license pursuant to Code Section 16-11-130 or subsection (c) of Code Section 16-11-127.1, he or she shall have proof of his or her exemption in his or her immediate possession at all times when carrying a weapon, and his or her failure to do so shall be prima-facie evidence of a violation of the applicable provision of Code Sections 16-11-126 through 16-11-127.2.
(b) A person carrying a weapon shall not be subject to detention for the sole purpose of investigating whether such person has a weapons carry license.
(c) A person convicted of a violation of this Code section shall be fined not more than $10.00 if he or she produces in court his or her weapons carry license, provided that it was valid at the time of his or her arrest, or produces proof of his or her exemption.
So, a police officer cannot detain you simply to ascertain whether or not you have a weapons license.
A resident concealed carrier (or non-resident with a reciprocity agreement) may be subject to verification by an authorized representative of the judge of a probate court.
O.C.G.A. § 16-11-129. Weapons carry license; temporary renewal permit; mandamus
(l) Verification of license. The judge of a probate court or his or her designee shall be authorized to verify the legitimacy and validity of a weapons carry license to a license holder, pursuant to a subpoena or court order, or for public safety purposes, but shall not be authorized to provide any further information regarding license holders.
Ergo, if a duly authorized representative of a judge asks to supply verification – it is the concealed carrier’s responsibility to do so. Follow-up laws concerning the carriage of firearms by duly licensed and recognized non-residents is further governed here (O.C.G.A. § 16-11-126. Having or carrying handguns, long guns, or other weapons; license requirement; exceptions for homes, motor vehicles, private property, and other locations and conditions).
Hawaii – Unknown At This Time
Hawaii’s concealed carry permitting process is currently in the Appellate Courts. As such, it is essentially “no permit” in practice. There is no explicit requirement to inform law enforcement of your transport of a concealed firearm on your person or in your vehicle assuming you are completely, 100% not in violation of any Hawaii state code and are one of the very few people actually licensed to carry a concealed firearm. Here’s the specific law governing the permitting process.
So, for that extremely small number of people who (a) have Hawaii concealed carry permits and (b) have a concealed carry firearm on them – there is no specific known law at this time mandating you must inform law enforcement of that firearm so long as you are not in a restricted area or in violation of any Hawaii state code.
At this time, Hawaii does not acknowledge any other state’s permitting process and thus, does not acknowledge non-resident concealed carry permits. If you’re in Hawaii as a non-resident with a firearm and it’s concealed on you – you’re more than likely breaking the law.
Visitors must register their firearms with the chief of police and be subject to a whole host of restrictions governing magazine capacity and classifications of “assault pistol”. It’s very convoluted but you are required to inform the chief of police upon arrival.
Idaho – No Known Duty To Inform
In Idaho, the only places that restrict concealed carry are generally located within cities. Outside city limits, it is essentially permitless concealed carry. City ordinances cannot override state ordinances. All applicable laws concerning Concealed Carry in Idaho may be obtained via Idaho 18-3302. concealed weapons and applicable addendum.
Illinois – If asked (Amended July 12th)
(h) If an officer of a law enforcement agency initiates an investigative stop, including but not limited to a traffic stop, of a licensee or a non-resident carrying a concealed firearm under subsection (e) of Section 40 of this Act, upon the request of the officer the licensee or non-resident shall disclose to the officer that he or she is in possession of a concealed firearm under this Act, present the license upon the request of the officer if he or she is a licensee or present upon the request of the officer evidence under paragraph (2) of subsection (e) of Section 40 of this Act that he or she is a non-resident qualified to carry under that subsection, and identify the location of the concealed firearm. During a traffic stop, any passenger within the vehicle who is a licensee or a non-resident carrying under subsection (e) of Section 40 of this Act must comply with the requirements of this subsection (h).
Illinois was the last state to adopt a concealed carry policy. They have heavily restricted the criteria for what type of gun can be purchased, where it can be carried, and the forms of identification necessary to verify it.
Indiana – No Explicit Duty To Inform
In Indiana, if you have a valid license to carry a concealed firearm, you don’t have to inform the officer of this. However, should the officer arrest you based on the suspicion of you violating firearms statutes, you will have to produce your permit to the prosecuting attorney. So you do not have a duty to inform.
Indictment or information; defendant’s burden to prove exemption or license; arrest, effect of production of valid license, or establishment of exemption
Sec. 24. (a) In an information or indictment brought for the enforcement of any provision of this chapter, it is not necessary to negate any exemption specified under this chapter, or to allege the absence of a license required under this chapter. The burden of proof is on the defendant to prove that he is exempt under section 2 of this chapter, or that he has a license as required under this chapter.
(b) Whenever a person who has been arrested or charged with a violation of section 1 of this chapter presents a valid license to the prosecuting attorney or establishes that he is exempt under section 2 of this chapter, any prosecution for a violation of section 1 of this chapter shall be dismissed immediately, and all records of an arrest or proceedings following arrest shall be destroyed immediately.
As added by P.L.311-1983, SEC.32.
Iowa – No Known Duty To Inform
Iowa Statute 724.4 was examined for any explicit mentioning of the need to inform law enforcement of a legally concealed firearm and no mention was found.
724.5 DUTY TO CARRY PERMIT TO CARRY WEAPONS.
A person armed with a revolver, pistol, or pocket billy concealed upon the person shall have in the person’s immediate possession the permit provided for in section 724.4, subsection 4, paragraph “i”, and shall produce the permit for inspection at the request of a peace officer. Failure to so produce a permit is a simple misdemeanor.
Kansas – No Known Duty To Inform
Kansas not only doesn’t have any explicit requirement to inform law enforcement of a legally concealed firearm (it’s a constitutional carry state, now) – it prohibits local government from imposing any such restriction. Kansas’ conditions for constitutional carry (for residents, only) may be found here. The only informing that need be done is for non-residents wishing to carry a concealed firearm. They have to apply with the Attorney General’s office unto which they will receive an 180 day receipt.
Kentucky – No Known Duty To Inform
The State of Kentucky has no known regulation (at present) which stipulates a carrier of a concealed firearm must inform their police. However, Harlan County Sheriff’s Chief Deputy Matt Cope mentioned in a recent article that although it’s not required, it would be helpful if people with a CCDW license let police know they have one if they are pulled over for any reason. He added, for safety’s sake police ask license holders to present their license and let police know if there is a concealed weapon in the car.
Louisiana – Yes
§1313. Code of Conduct of Permittees
B. Duties and Responsibilities of the Permittee
1. A permittee armed with a handgun shall notify any police officer who approaches the permittee in an official manner or with an identified official purpose that he has a handgun on his person, submit to a pat down, and allow the officer to temporarily disarm him. Failure to comply with this provision shall result in a six-month automatic suspension of the permit.
Additionally, if you’ve been under the influence — it’s best to just come clean if law enforcement approaches. You are legally obliged to do so. And until that statute is overruled due to your Fifth Amendment protections from self-incrimination, you’re expected to oblige.
“I.(1) No individual to whom a concealed handgun permit is issued may carry and conceal such handgun while under the influence of alcohol or a controlled dangerous substance. While a permittee is under the influence of alcohol or a controlled dangerous substance, an otherwise lawful permit is considered automatically suspended and is not valid. A permittee shall be considered under the influence as evidenced by a blood alcohol reading of .05 percent or greater by weight of alcohol in the blood, or when a blood test or urine test shows any confirmed presence of a controlled dangerous substance as defined in R.S. 40:961 and 964.
(2) A permittee armed with a handgun in accordance with this Section shall notify any police officer who approaches the permittee in an official manner or with an identified official purpose that he has a weapon on his person, submit to a pat down, and allow the officer to temporarily disarm him. Whenever a law enforcement officer is made aware that an individual is carrying a concealed handgun and the law enforcement officer has reasonable grounds to believe that the individual is under the influence of either alcohol or a controlled dangerous substance, the law enforcement officer may take temporary possession of the handgun and request submission of the individual to a department certified chemical test for determination of the chemical status of the individual. Whenever a law enforcement officer is made aware that an individual is behaving in a criminally negligent manner as defined under the provisions of this Section, or is negligent in the carrying of a concealed handgun as provided for in R.S. 40:1382, the law enforcement officer may seize the handgun, until adjudication by a judge, if the individual is issued a summons or arrested under the provisions of R.S. 40:1382. Failure by the permittee to comply with the provisions of this Paragraph shall result in a six-month automatic suspension of the permit.”
TL;DR – if you are under the influence of alcohol or a controlled substance AND have a firearm on you in a concealed manner, immediately notify the officer of such without hesitation. When in doubt, inform the officer of the presence of your concealed carry handgun.
Maine – No. Permitless Carriers? Yes.
Pursuant to the Maine Attorney General‘s recommendations as of May, 2014,
“You have an obligation to confirm that your possession and use of firearms is lawful pursuant to Maine law, federal law, and the laws of any other jurisdiction in which you intend to possess a firearm.”
For permitless carriers, Summary of Public Law 2015, Chapter 327 (127th Legis., LD 652) mentions on page 2:
“If an individual is carrying a concealed handgun without a permit, he/she has a duty, when coming into contact with any law enforcement officer during a routine stop, detention or arrest, to immediately inform the law enforcement officer that the individual is carrying a concealed handgun.”
Maine is now a permitless carry state. So, this means, essentially everyone without a permit needs to inform.
Maryland – No Known Duty To Inform
Maryland does not honor any other states’ concealed carry permit. If you are one of the few residents of Maryland who has a concealed carry permit, you are not specifically required to inform law enforcement of your carriage of your concealed firearm. If you are not a resident – keep your firearm locked up and unloaded in your trunk with the ammunition stored in a separate container.
via Washington Times
…Mr. Kramer represented a Pennsylvania security officer who was pulled over in the state for speeding. The Maryland officer asked Mr. Kramer’s client whether he had a gun in the car, and once the man acknowledged he did, the officer arrested him for having the gun and the cartridge in the same locked container — not separated, as per Maryland law.
“You think that Maryland would honor legitimate people with guns rather than charging people who are legitimately carrying but doing it incorrectly,” said Mr. Kramer, who was former deputy U.S. attorney for Maryland. “I would think that the police would want to take the time to go after those people who don’t have a legitimate right to have a gun rather than locking up people who have a valid license.
As a concealed carrier, you won’t need to worry about having to inform a Maryland police officer about being in possession of a gun – he’ll ask you.
Massachusetts – No Known Duty To Inform
You do not have a legal duty to inform a police officer of your concealed firearm. That said, you should.
In Massachusetts, carrying a firearm is considered a sublime privilege – not a right. Therefore, the purchase, sale, transfer, or carriage of a firearm has strict conditions and permitting. If a police officer finds you have violated any of the voluminous provisions that the Great Commonwealth of Massachusetts has set forth – your license can be suspended or revoked indefinitely.
Section 125. The officials authorized to issue a license under section one hundred and twenty-two, after due notice to the licensee and reasonable opportunity for him to be heard, may declare his license forfeited, or may suspend his license for such period of time as they may deem proper, upon satisfactory proof that he has violated or permitted a violation of any condition thereof or has violated any provision of this chapter, or has been convicted of a felony. The pendency of proceedings before a court shall not suspend or interfere with the power to declare a forfeiture. If the license is declared forfeited, the licensee shall be disqualified to receive a license for one year after the expiration of the term of the license so forfeited. The commissioner of the department of criminal justice information services shall be notified in writing of any forfeiture under this section.
Michigan – Yes
If you hold a Concealed Pistol License (CPL) you must disclose that information to police or law enforcement if they stop you.
Minnesota – No Known Duty To Inform
Localities are allowed to enforce statutes stricter than those enforced at the state level. Check with those localities and, when in doubt, inform.
Mississippi- No Known Duty To Inform
Missouri – No Known Duty To Inform
You do not have a duty to inform but it is highly suggested that you keep your hands free and clear of that firearm should a member of the Missouri law enforcement come to your vehicle’s window.
For more information, provided by the Missouri Department of Public Safety (DPS), check out their brochure.
Montana – No Known Duty To Inform
Montana allows additional restrictions to be placed on the concealment of firearms. A good piece of guidance on this can be found from the Montana Department of Justice. As long as you have reciprocity with the state of Montana (non-resident), you should be good for peaceable journey.
Nebraska – Yes
69-2440. Permitholder; duties; contact with peace officer or emergency services personnel; procedures for securing handgun.
(1) A permitholder shall carry his or her permit to carry a concealed handgun and his or her Nebraska driver’s license, Nebraska-issued state identification card, or military identification card any time he or she carries a concealed handgun. The permitholder shall display both the permit to carry a concealed handgun and his or her Nebraska motor vehicle operator’s license, Nebraska-issued state identification card, or military identification card when asked to do so by a peace officer or by emergency services personnel.
Nevada – No Known Duty To Inform
In Nevada, it is your duty to maintain your concealed carry permit on you whenever you have a concealed carry firearm on your person. You must provide that permit when asked by a peace officer as per NRS 202.3667.
New Hampshire – No Known Duty To Inform
New Jersey – No.
New Jersey does not allow non-residents to maintain a concealed carry firearm on their person or vehicle. If you’re covered under LEOSA, please do present your permit immediately to avoid confusion.
New Mexico – No Known Duty To Inform
New York – No Known Duty To Inform
Unless specific local ordinances for the cities of Buffalo, Rochester, or New York City (examples) require a duty to inform – the State itself does not appear to require it. If you are a NY resident concealed carrier, law enforcement will certainly determine the validity of your permit when they run your license plate. If you are an out-of-state concealed carrier – you’re not authorized to carry concealed in the State of New York.
North Carolina – Yes
North Carolina’s concealed carry gun laws begin and end with the stipulation that you will inform the police immediately and without reservation when they stop you to communicate.
§ 14-415.11. Permit to carry concealed handgun; scope of permit.
(a) Any person who has a concealed handgun permit may carry a concealed handgun unless otherwise specifically prohibited by law. The person shall carry the permit together with valid identification whenever the person is carrying a concealed handgun, shall disclose to any law enforcement officer that the person holds a valid permit and is carrying a concealed handgun when approached or addressed by the officer, and shall display both the permit and the proper identification upon the request of a law enforcement officer. In addition to these requirements, a military permittee whose permit has expired during deployment may carry a concealed handgun during the 90 days following the end of deployment and before the permit is renewed provided the permittee also displays proof of deployment to any law enforcement officer.
(*Update thanks to a fellow North Carolinian)
The most reliable opinion on the firearm laws in North Carolina comes from the Attorney General, Roy Cooper, in his 2014 revised analysis of firearm laws for the state. In it, while he doesn’t explicitly say a concealed carrier MUST inform – he makes every argument that it would be in the concealed carrier’s best interest.
“D. Transporting Weapons [excerpt]
…While a weapon carried openly in an automobile would not be concealed, there are other problems specific to this method of carrying a weapon. The principal drawback, of course, is in the event of an individual being stopped by a law enforcement official, the officer may not readily know that individual’s purpose and intent for carrying a weapon. As such, it is imperative that an individual immediately notify an officer of the presence of any weapon in the automobile, for the officer’s and the vehicle’s occupants’ safety.”
In a separate section, he acknowledges that local law is given a lot more leeway than in other states. North Carolina, in essence, is a hodge-podge of local county and municipal laws with some very strict oversight at the state level.
“Article 53B of Chapter 14 of our General Statutes provides that with certain exceptions, the field of firearms regulation is preempted from regulation by local governments. A county or municipality may regulate or prohibit the sale of firearms at a location only if there is a lawful, general, similar regulation or prohibition of other commercial activities at that location…”
In conclusion, always inform a North Carolina police officer of the presence of a concealed carry firearm. This goes for passengers, as well.
North Dakota – No Known Duty To Inform
Ohio – Yes (If occupant of vehicle)
If you are an occupant of a vehicle (driver or otherwise) and are pulled over, you have to notify the officer you are in possession of a concealed carry firearm. Instructions below:
2923.126 Duties of licensed individual.
If a licensee is the driver or an occupant of a motor vehicle that is stopped as the result of a traffic stop or a stop for another law enforcement purpose and if the licensee is transporting or has a loaded handgun in the motor vehicle at that time, the licensee shall promptly inform any law enforcement officer who approaches the vehicle while stopped that the licensee has been issued a concealed handgun license and that the licensee currently possesses or has a loaded handgun; the licensee shall not knowingly disregard or fail to comply with lawful orders of a law enforcement officer given while the motor vehicle is stopped, knowingly fail to remain in the motor vehicle while stopped, or knowingly fail to keep the licensee’s hands in plain sight after any law enforcement officer begins approaching the licensee while stopped and before the officer leaves, unless directed otherwise by a law enforcement officer; and the licensee shall not knowingly have contact with the loaded handgun by touching it with the licensee’s hands or fingers, in any manner in violation of division (E) of section 2923.16 of the Revised Code, after any law enforcement officer begins approaching the licensee while stopped and before the officer leaves. Additionally, if a licensee is the driver or an occupant of a commercial motor vehicle that is stopped by an employee of the motor carrier enforcement unit for the purposes defined in section 5503.04 of the Revised Code and if the licensee is transporting or has a loaded handgun in the commercial motor vehicle at that time, the licensee shall promptly inform the employee of the unit who approaches the vehicle while stopped that the licensee has been issued a concealed handgun license and that the licensee currently possesses or has a loaded handgun.
Oklahoma – Yes
TITLE 21 § 1290.8 POSSESSION OF LICENSE REQUIRED-NOTIFICATION TO POLICE OF GUN
B. The person shall be required to have possession of his or her valid handgun license and a valid Oklahoma driver license or an Oklahoma State photo identification at all times when in possession of an authorized pistol.
The person shall display the handgun license on demand of a law enforcement officer; provided, however, thatin the absence of reasonable and articulable suspicion of other criminal activity, an individual carrying an unconcealed or concealed handgun shall not be disarmed or physically restrained unless the individual fails to display a valid handgun license in response to that demand.
Oregon – No Known Duty To Inform
Pennsylvania – No Known Duty To Inform
Rhode Island – Please DO!
Pursuant to statutes published by the Rhode Island Attorney General’s office, law enforcement can arrest you for having a firearm on you – even if you have not committed a crime.
§ 11-47-28 Arrest and detention for possession of firearms.
Every officer authorized to make an arrest may, without complaint and warrant, arrest any person who has in his or her possession any firearm, whenever the officer has reasonable ground to suspect that the person possesses or is using or is carrying the firearm contrary to law. Any person so arrested may be detained a reasonable time, not exceeding twenty-four (24) hours, for the purpose of making an investigation concerning the person, but no person so arrested shall be detained longer than twenty-four (24) hours without complaint being made against him or her before some proper court or justice. If the officer making the arrest shall at any time within the twenty-four (24) hours satisfy himself or herself that there is no ground for making a criminal complaint against the person, he or she shall thereupon be discharged from custody.
South Carolina – Yes
SECTION 23-31-215. Issuance of permits.
(K) A permit holder must have his permit identification card in his possession whenever he carries a concealable weapon. When carrying a concealable weapon pursuant to Article 4, Chapter 31, Title 23, a permit holder must inform a law enforcement officer of the fact that he is a permit holder and present the permit identification card when an officer:
(1) identifies himself as a law enforcement officer; and
(2) requests identification or a driver’s license from a permit holder.
South Dakota – No Known Duty To Inform
Tennessee – No Known Duty To Inform
Texas – Yes (If asked for identification)
TEX GV. CODE ANN. § 411.205 : Texas Statutes – Section 411.205: DISPLAYING LICENSE; PENALTY
(a) If a license holder is carrying a handgun on or about the license holder’s person when a magistrate or a peace officer demands that the license holder display identification, the license holder shall display both the license holder’s driver’s license or identification certificate issued by the department and the license holder’s handgun license. A person who fails or refuses to display the license and identification as required by this subsection is subject to suspension of the person’s license as provided by Section 411.187.
Texas has an ordinance from H.B. 823 that stipulates an officer who sees a firearm into a person’s vehicle during a routine stop has to include the “traveller assumption” – i.e. the person is lawfully moving from one location to another with no criminal intent. However, it doesn’t matter because you have a valid Texas permit to carry a concealed firearm!
Utah – No
Vermont – No
Laws governing the constitutional right to conceal a firearm upon one’s person can be found here.
Virginia – No Explicit Duty To Inform
However, you must have your concealed carry permit on your person and available for any law enforcement stopping you in your vehicle or in person.
Washington – No Explicit Duty To Inform
West Virginia – No Explicit Duty To Inform
Wisconsin – No
In Wisconsin, they explicitly state in their license to carry laws that unless a member of law enforcement asks you to show your concealed carry permit, you don’t have to.
175.60 License to carry a concealed weapon – 2g
(c) Unless the licensee or out-of-state licensee is carrying a concealed weapon in a manner described under s. 941.23 (2) (e), a licensee who is carrying a concealed weapon shall display his or her license document and photographic identification card and an out-of-state licensee who is carrying a concealed weapon shall display his or her out-of-state license and photographic identification card to a law enforcement officer upon the request of the law enforcement officer while the law enforcement officer is acting in an official capacity and with lawful authority.